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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Mechanism of ISO in cerebral I/R Injury. Note: After ISO treatment, Shh/Gli and TGF-β2/Smad3 pathway can promote the production of cytokines such as VEGF and CD34, promoting angiogenesis, and restoring blood supply and oxygen to the brain. On the other side, ISO could reduce the death of cells in anoxic area and protect brain tissue by inhibiting MAPKKK, MAPKK, JNK. I/R: Ischemia/reperfusion; ISO: isoflurane; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPKK: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; MAPKKK: mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase; Shh: sonic hedgehog; Smad3: mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3; TGF-β2: transforming growth factor-β2; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.

<b>Figure 1: Mechanism of ISO in cerebral I/R Injury.</b>
Note: After ISO treatment, Shh/Gli and TGF-β2/Smad3 pathway can promote the production of cytokines such as VEGF and CD34, promoting angiogenesis, and restoring blood supply and oxygen to the brain. On the other side, ISO could reduce the death of cells in anoxic area and protect brain tissue by inhibiting MAPKKK, MAPKK, JNK. I/R: Ischemia/reperfusion; ISO: isoflurane; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPKK: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; MAPKKK: mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase; Shh: sonic hedgehog; Smad3: mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3; TGF-β2: transforming growth factor-β2; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.