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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2023
Volume 13 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-40

Online since Thursday, August 4, 2022

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Clinical utility of ozone therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in degenerative disc disease p. 1
Kaitlyn Re, Jason Gandhi, Raymond Liang, Shrey Patel, Gunjan Joshi, Noel L. Smith, Inefta Reid, Sardar Ali Khan
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.351890  PMID:35946215
Ozone can be medically useful concerning healing wounds and relieving pain in various conditions, such as disc disease. The aspects of human blood ozonation have been reviewed, as well as potential complications that may arise. The mechanisms of ozone therapy are discussed in detail. It is imperative to recognize ozone as a useful proxy in oxidative-stress related diseases, consolidating other medical gases recognized for their therapeutic importance. The utility of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is also discussed. Disc herniation is very common, as more than 3 million cases are treated per year. Herein we review the medical, surgical, and gene-based therapies that ozone therapy can provide regarding disc disease.
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Therapeutic applications of hydrogen sulfide and novel donors for cerebral ischemic stroke: a narrative review p. 7
Jia-Sheng Ding, Yan Zhang, Tian-Yi Wang, Xiang Li, Cheng Ma, Zhong-Mou Xu, Qing Sun, Xiang Xu, Gang Chen
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.350863  PMID:35946216
Ischemic stroke happens when the blood supply to the brain is obstructed and it is associated with numerous complex mechanisms, such as activated apoptosis genes, oxidative stress and reaction of inflammation, which finally result in neurological deficits. Several gases have been proved to have neuroprotective roles, even the classic gases that are thought to be toxic such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S is the third identified endogenous gas signaling molecule following carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. H2S plays a significant role in stroke. Inhalation of H2S can attenuate cerebral infarct volume and promote neurological function in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion to reduce ischemic stroke-induced injury in vivo and in vitro as a result. Therefore, H2S can be clinically used to reduce ischemic stroke-induced injury. This review introduces the toxic mechanisms and effects of H2S on cerebral ischemic stroke
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RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Comparison between Air Q and intubating laryngeal mask airway as intubation conduits in patients with simulated fixed cervical spine: a prospective observational study p. 10
Renu Bala, Jasmine Basumatary, Priyanka Bansal
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.350920  PMID:35946217
The intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) can be used for ventilation and oxygenation between intubation attempts, but there is a varied success rate ranging from 33% to 96%. Air Q is a relatively new entrant. Parker flex tube aids in atraumatic intubation. The primary aim of this study was to compare Air Q intubating laryngeal airway with ILMA as intubation conduits in patients with simulated fixed cervical spine using a Parker flex tube. It was a single-blinded, randomized, prospective, and comparative study conducted on 91 patients aged between 18 to 60 years of either sex, scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II. Out of 45 patients in each group, Air Q was successfully placed in 43 patients and ILMA was successfully placed in 44 patients. 35.56% of the patients required maneuvers for placing the Air Q, whereas, for placing the ILMA, only 15.56% of the patients required maneuvers. Intubation through the AIR Q was successful in 39 patients and through the ILMA in 44 patients, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. The number of attempts and the time of device insertion were comparable. There were a similar number of attempts, maneuvers required, and time is taken for endotracheal intubation. The incidence of cough and sore throat was comparable in both groups. We conclude that ILMA has a higher success rate than Air Q for tracheal intubation with Parker Flex tube in patients with simulated fixed cervical spine. More optimized maneuvers were required for the placement of Air Q.
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Combined high-voltage pulsed radiofrequency and ozone therapy versus ozone therapy alone in treating postherpetic neuralgia: a retrospective comparison p. 15
Jian-Feng Zhang, John P. Williams, Qian-Nan Zhao, Hui Liu, Jian-Xiong An
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.352660  PMID:35946218
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a devastating disease with extraordinarily poor treatment outcomes. Both pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and ozone have good effects on the treatment of the disease. However, whether PRF and ozone have a synergistic effect on PHN remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of ozone alone and in combination with PRF in the treatment of PHN. Ninety-one patients with PHN were assigned into two groups: PRF combined with ozone (PRF + ozone group, n = 44) and ozone therapy alone (ozone group, n = 47). In PRF + ozone group, the high-voltage, long-duration PRF was applied to the target dorsal root ganglions. Then ozonated water (11.5 µg/mL) was injected through the inner cannula. In the ozone group, all other processes were the same as those in the PRF + ozone group apart from the electrical stimulation. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by visual analog scale and tactile sensation at pre-treatment and post-treatment 3, 6, and 12 months. Compared with pre-treatment data, the visual analog scale score was significantly decreased in both groups after treatment. Compared with the ozone group, the visual analog scale score was significantly decreased in the PRF + ozone group at 3, 6, and 12 months. Similarly, the tactile sensation was also significantly decreased at post-treatment when compared to pre-treatment. However, there were no statistical differences between the two groups. Regression analysis results showed that the history of diabetes mellitus and age had significant negative and positive effects, respectively, on the treatment results. To conclude, the administration of PRF + ozone and ozone therapy alone could both improve pain symptoms. Moreover, treatment effects and total efficacy rates tended to be higher for the combination of PRF and ozone than ozone alone. This conclusion was especially true for long-term therapeutic effects.
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Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on Notch signaling pathway after severe carbon monoxide poisoning in mice p. 23
Hui-Jun Hu, Dan-Feng Fan, Zhou-Heng Ye, Qiang Sun
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.344971  PMID:35946219
Demyelination of the cerebral white matter is the most common pathological change after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Notch signaling, the mechanism underlying the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, is critical to remyelination of the white matter after brain lesion. The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on Notch signaling pathway after CO poisoning for the explanation of the protective effects of HBO on CO-poisoning-related cerebral white matter demyelination. The male C57 BL/6 mice with severe CO poisoning were treated by HBO. And HBO therapy shortened the escape latency and improved the body mass after CO poisoning. HBO therapy also significantly suppressed protein and mRNA levels of Notch1 and Hes5 after CO poisoning. Our findings suggested that HBO could suppress the activation of Notch signaling pathway after CO poisoning, which is the mechanism underlying the neuroprotection of HBO on demyelination after severe CO poisoning.
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Light-cured calcium hydroxide cements release of calcium ions using argon based induction coupled mass spectroscopy - an in vitro study p. 29
Sidharth S Menon, Zarana Sanghvi, Shraddha Chokshi, Pruthvi Patel, Pooja Trivedi, Nishit Patel
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.344976  PMID:35946220
Calcium ion-releasing ability of different calcium hydroxide-based pulp capping materials was comparatively evaluated in this study. Different brands of cements were taken from different manufacturers and categorized into three groups. Three different brands of Ca(OH)2 cements (Dycal, TheraCal, and Cal LC) were taken prepared by mixing and curing the cements as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Consequently, ion release was measured after 7, 14, and 21 days by argon-based induction coupled plasma mass spectroscopy test. Within the limitations of this study, light-cured Ca(OH)2 cements released a higher amount of calcium ions compared with self-cured Ca(OH)2 cements. Theracal was found to be the highest light-cured calcium ion releasing materials throughout the period of 21 days. In conclusion, further clinical studies are warranted to substantiate the findings of this study.
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Identifying medically relevant xenon protein targets by in silico screening of the structural proteome p. 33
David A. Winkler, Ira Katz, Andrew Warden, Aaron W Thornton, Géraldine Farjot
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.333858  PMID:35946221
In a previous study, in silico screening of the binding of almost all proteins in the Protein Data Bank to each of the five noble gases xenon, krypton, argon, neon, and helium was reported. This massive and rich data set requires analysis to identify the gas-protein interactions that have the best binding strengths, those where the binding of the noble gas occurs at a site that can modulate the function of the protein, and where this modulation might generate clinically relevant effects. Here, we report a preliminary analysis of this data set using a rational, heuristic score based on binding strength and location. We report a partial prioritized list of xenon protein targets and describe how these data can be analyzed, using arginase and carbonic anhydrase as examples. Our aim is to make the scientific community aware of this massive, rich data set and how it can be analyzed to accelerate future discoveries of xenon-induced biological activity and, ultimately, the development of new “atomic” drugs.
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COMMUNICATION Top

Formulation of an oxygen policy to ensure adequate supply of oxygen reserves during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic p. 39
Tanmay Tiwari, Divya Narain Upadhyaya, Yadvendra Dheer, Gyan Prakash Singh, Sandeep Tiwari
DOI:10.4103/2045-9912.344975  PMID:35946222
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