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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 60-66

Prediction of diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 disease by blood gas parameters using decision trees machine learning model: a retrospective observational study

1 Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Erzincan, Turkey
2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Erzincan, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Mehmet Tahir Huyut
Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Erzincan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2045-9912.326002

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic went down in history as a pandemic caused by corona-viruses that emerged in 2019 and spread rapidly around the world. The different symptoms of COVID-19 made it difficult to understand which variables were more influential on the diagnosis, course and mortality of the disease. Machine learning models can accurately assess hidden patterns among risk factors by analyzing large-datasets to quickly predict diagnosis, prognosis and mortality of diseases. Because of this advantage, the use of machine learning models as decision support systems in health services is increasing. The aim of this study is to determine the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 disease with blood-gas data using the Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) decision-tree-model, one of the machine learning methods, which is a subfield of artificial intelligence. This study was carried out on a total of 686 patients with COVID-19 (n = 343) and non-COVID-19 (n = 343) treated at Erzincan-Mengücek-Gazi-Training and Research-Hospital between April 1, 2020 and March 1, 2021. Arterial blood gas values of all patients were obtained from the hospital registry system. While the total-accuracyratio of the decision-tree-model was 65.0% in predicting the prognosis of the disease, it was 68.2% in the diagnosis of the disease. According to the results obtained, the low ionized-calcium value (< 1.10 mM) significantly predicted the need for intensive care of COVID-19 patients. At admission, low-carboxyhemoglobin (< 1.00%), high-pH (> 7.43), low-sodium (< 135.0 mM), hematocrit (< 40.0%), and methemoglobin (< 1.30%) values are important biomarkers in the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the results were promising. The findings in the study may aid in the early-diagnosis of the disease and the intensive-care treatment of patients who are severe. The study was approved by the Ministry of Health and Erzincan University Faculty of Medicine Clinical Research Ethics Committee.

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